Smart grid refers to “intelligent power grids” in which electricity is consumed, generated and stored at the same time. Thanks to modern communication technologies, the current flows are optimised which prevents power jitters.
With smart grids, fluctuating renewable energy sources can be integrated optimally. The low-voltage networks not only absorb and distribute electricity from the distribution networks. Instead, they have to feed more and more electricity from distributed renewable energy sources into the grids. When utilised intelligently, smart grids can help to avoid an expensive expansion of the network infrastructure or to keep it as low as possible.
At the core of smart grids are intelligent measuring systems, or “smart meters”. They regulate the communication and connect individual consumers, the power grid and energy supply companies with each other.
Smart grids also enable electric cars to feed power from their battery back into the power grid. For that, however, the cars have to be connected to an intelligent charging station. The technology is called bidirectional charging or Vehicle to Grid (V2G).